HORSHAM RUSSET Raised around 1790, from a pip of a Nonpareil, by Mrs Goose of Horsham St. Faith's, near Norwich (not Horsham in Sussex). Hogg described it as a small (Scott said medium sized) dessert fruit, with a flattened top. Pale green skin, covered in grey russet, and tinted pale salmon-pink next the sun. The flesh is green-white, crisp, juicy and aromatic. In use from November to March. Lindley adds that the tree is hardy and a good bearer. Our thanks to John and Helen Hempsall for providing scion wood of this, now rare, variety. Pollination Group 4





HOWGATE WONDER An impressively large culinary apple and a popular exhibition fruit, raised by G. Wratten of Howgate Lane, Bembridge, Isle of Wight around 1915. A cross between Blenheim Orange and Newton Wonder, with sweet, juicy fruit, which quickly goes fluffy, when cooked. The vigorous trees crop well and are very hardy, so it is popular in the north. Pollination Group 4



HUBBARD’S PEARMAIN An eighteenth century apple, introduced by Lindley in 1820 at a meeting of the London Horticultural Society as ‘a real Norfolk apple’. Small fruit, with yellow-green skin, flushed bronze-red, and sometimes russeted. The flesh is firm, crunchy and juicy with a very rich flavour - Hogg clearly thought highly of it, saying that no English apple was its superior. Pretty white blossom, and good crops. A late apple ripe in October and storing until January. Pollination Group 4


HUNT’S DUKE OF GLOUCESTER Raised by Dr. Fry of Gloucester and introduced by Thomas Hunt in 1820. A mid season dessert and cider apple, small to medium sized, round and conical, with golden skin, lightly russeted. At the end of September the apples are crisp, but yielding, juicy, very sweet and with a very lemony, zesty, rich flavour. An excellent and powerful apple, storing to January. Pollination Group 3

IBSTONE PIPPIN An old and previously unknown variety introduced to us by Tom and Susan White of Pishill Bottom, Stonor, near Henley, Oxfordshire in 2013. Their tree was probably planted by Tom’s father around 1940. His mother came from nearby Ibstone, which was probably the source of their tree. Since their tree suckers and the fruit is the same on the suckers, their tree cannot have been grafted and it is assumed to be a ‘Burr Knot’ type which will root easily from cuttings, and therefore is easily passed around from place to place. It is a medium sized oblong apple, green turning pale yellow, and ripe in late August, when it is crisp, juicy sweet and with a good flavour. By late September/early October it has become soft with a peculiar musty taste. A good early eating apple, and probably a useful sweet cider apple. Pollination Group 5
IFFLEY BEEFING A good old-fashioned cooker, introduced to us by Mr and Mrs Grimley-Evans of Iffley, a village near Oxford on the River Isis, now a suburb of Oxford. Their farmhouse, on the edge of the village, still retained two old trees from the old farm orchard. It was still a remote, active farm at the beginning of the 20th century. A tall tree bore large apples, of such a density that they don’t bruise when dropping from a great height. They are flat and broad with a wide, open eye in a flat basin. The skin is pinky red, almost all covered with deep red and striped maroon. There is heavy russet around the stalk and there are prominent white dots over the body. It is pleasantly edible as a dessert apple when fully ripe but primarily it is of culinary use, with a very good, tangy, yet sweet, flavour. When cooked the dark skin colours the flesh with pink. It keeps some shape. When cut, it does not discolour or bruise readily. It becomes ripe in early October and will store until the end of the year, at least. It is not obviously any variety still known and has been renamed Iffley Beefing to send it on a new life of popularity. Mr and Mrs Grimley-Evans have also provided Iffley Codlin, below. Pollination Group 4
IFFLEY CODLIN As with Iffley Beefing, given to us by Corrine and John Grimley Evans of Iffley, Oxford. This is an old tree, but not of large growth. There were once many different codlins, but few now exist in collections and it may be difficult to identify its original name, hence its new name of Iffley Codlin. It is medium sized, oval and conical in shape, lightly ribbed on the body and more prominently at the eye. There are some dark dots on the skin, but it is otherwise of uniform green, going pale golden with full ripeness. In common with other old codlins, it can be used quite early – as early as August, while the fruit is produced over a period into October, when it is crisp, juicy, becoming sweeter - and then a very pleasant eating apple. Its best use, though, is culinary. If used early it keeps its shape when cooked, producing clear, cream flesh and having a very rich tangy and sweet flavour, useful in tarts. By September it will keep some shape but would mash. The flavour is very rich and lemony without the need for added sugar. The apple is now sweet enough to eat with pleasure. Apples will store into November. Pollination Group 3
IMPROVED KESWICK CODLIN An old apple that was thought to have been lost, but we found an old tree in 2006, along with several other important fruits, in the orchard of the late Martin Stevens at Holmer Green in Buckinghamshire. Born in 1920, he was involved with orchards from childhood (as were his father and grandfather) and he remembered all the names of his trees and relayed them to us. The origin and age of this variety is uncertain and it is still unknown whether it was a seedling of Keswick Codlin or a mutation. The first known record was when it was exhibited by Harrison Nurseries of Leicester, at the 1883 National Apple Congress, held at the RHS grounds at Chiswick. It was said to be later season, more rounded than Keswick Codlin and pale straw coloured. It was also described as being acid, but that might be due to the early collection of apples for exhibit, as ours is actually quite sweet. Evans and Martin (2014) have suggested the origin to be at Harrowbarrow, Callington, Cornwall, while Thornhayes Nursery have said it was from the Tamar Valley, a little further south, but we do not know what records they draw from or the source of their fruit, which seems a little different from ours. Martin Stevens informed us that his Improved Keswick Codlin was paler, more rounded, lasted longer and was a little larger. That has been our experience here. Ripe at the end of September, when cooked it keeps its shape partially, softens fairly quickly and is very fruity but not so tangy. It is sweet enough without the addition of sugar. By the end of November the apples have become sweet enough to eat raw and stay in good condition to end of the year. Pollination Group 4
IRISH PEACH One of the best early apples, sent to the London Horticultural Society in 1819. It was very popular in Victorian and Edwardian times as 'a beautiful dish for dessert '. It is best eaten when fresh, as it does not store long before the rich, crisp and juicy flesh declines. The trees are moderately vigorous and spreading, and are tip bearing. Good crops, ready to pick in August or early September. Attractive pink blossom. Pollination Group 2
ISLAY PIPPIN Possibly the ‘Lord Islay’s Pippin’ of Forsyth. He mentioned the apple in 1810, but no further record of it existed. The otherwise excellent 1971 National Apple Register, written by Muriel Smith, did not include the work of Forsyth, relying instead upon reports from him by Lindley and Hogg, who clearly had no knowledge of this apple. We noticed that the Grove Research Station in Tasmania had an Islay Pippin, a name we had not discovered in any other world collections, and assumed it possibly to be the same as Lord Islay’s Pippin. Lord Islay became 3rd Duke of Argyll when his brother, the second duke, died. The 2nd duke, a very keen horticulturalist, created a house and garden at Whitton Park, Hounslow. Whether Lord Islay’s Pippin belonged to the second or third duke is unclear but on the death of the 3rd duke in 1761, many of the exotic plants were transferred to the Royal Gardens at Kew. This was the province of Forsyth (Gardener to George III) and he would surely have come across the apple, if our speculations are correct. The assumption must be that this is a London apple not a Western Isles apple. Forsyth only lists the apple - there is no description. Whatever it is, it is a delicious early season apple, with attractive pale skin, delicately striped red and with sweet and crisp lemony flesh. Spur bearing. We have noticed that others have taken this apple from us and called it Lord Islay’s Pippin. In the absence of firm evidence to conclude that it is the apple of Forsyth, it should be called Islay Pippin. Pollination Group 4
JAMES GRIEVE James Grieve was the manager of Dickson’s Nurseries, of Edinburgh. He introduced this mid-season, dual-purpose apple in 1893. Considered by some to be a cooker when grown in the north and dessert when grown in the south, we find it is a good cooking apple in both places, but remains only a mediocre dessert apple in the south. When eaten for dessert the fruit is crisp and juicy, with an unremarkable flavour; cooked it keeps all shape, but would mash. It can go a little dry after cooking, and is somewhat sharp and might want sugar, but is very rich and tangy. Still popular in Scotland, the tree is hardy, crops well and has striking pink and white blossom. It is ripe in mid-September and stores until November. Pollination Group 4
JENNIFER It was raised in 1923 by nurseryman F.W. Wastie of Eynsham, Oxfordshire and recorded in 1944, when it was sent to the National Fruit Trials by his son, J.F. Wastie, who named it after his daughter. A cross between Duchess’s Favourite and Beauty of Bath. It is an early dessert apple, ready in late August and early September. The apples are slightly ribbed with yellow skin, flushed pale red and striped with bright red. A sweet, crsip and juicy apple, but does not keep long. A vigorous grower. Part tip bearing. Pollination Group 3